Note: based on a RGCC chemosensitivity analysis I have seen at a German clinic, Hydroxychloroquine has been effective in killing the cancer cells of 5 out 7 patients that were tested. It is one of very few available drugs that inhibits autophagy, a mechanism associated with its anticancer properties. Hydroxychloroquine plaquenil pharmacological drug class Chloroquine hydrochloride dose Chloroquine rheumatoid arthritis Plaquenil and quinine The alkalinizing lysosomotropic drugs chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, amodiaquine, and azithromycin had a similar effect on the overall production of mature bioactive TGFβ. Reduced levels of secreted TGFβ were also associated with a decrease in Smad2 signaling. Mice treated with chloroquine showed a decrease in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid TGFβ. Rationales for lysosomotropic amines. Chloroquine is a diprotic weak base pK a1 = 8.1, pK a2 = 10.2 at 37°C that can exist in both protonated and unprotonated forms Figure 2 and Table 2. Unprotonated chloroquine can diffuse freely and rapidly across the membranes of cells and organelles to acidic cytoplasmic vesicles late endosomes and. Chloroquine is a lysosomotropic agent that causes marked changes in intracellular protein processing and trafficking and extensive autophagic vacuole formation. Chloroquine may be cytotoxic and has been used as a model of lysosomal-dependent cell death. In cancer, authophagy is the process used by cancer cells to “self-eat” in order to survive. Specifically, if authophagy is prolonged this will become a lethal process to cancer. duing chemotheraphy, radiotheraphy, etc.) authophagy is used by cancer cells to survive. However, note that Chloroquine has other properties as well that may be very well related to anti cancer mechanism, such as zinc ionophore, and others (see below the section on mechanisms). Lysosomotropic agent chloroquine Lysosomotropism depends on glucose a chloroquine resistance., Chloroquine analogues in drug discovery new directions of. Chloroquine phosphate shelf lifePlaquenil and headachesUsing pei vs chloroquine transfection Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been recommended by Chinese and South Korean health authorities for the experimental treatment COVID-19. In vitro studies in cell cultures demonstrated that hydroxychloroquine was more potent than chloroquine against SARS-CoV-2. Hydroxychloroquine - Wikipedia. Chloroquine-Induced Neuronal Cell Death Is p53 and Bcl-2.. Lysosomal Disruption Augments Obinutuzumab-Induced Direct.. Chloroquine CQ or its derivative hydroxychloroquine HCQ has been widely tested in preclinical cancer models as an inhibitor of the autophagy–lysosomal pathway. Freshly isolated embryonic chick tendon fibroblasts were incubated in suspension culture for six hrs in the presence or absence of ammonium chloride or chloroquine. Both agents caused a marked reduction in collagen production without inhibiting non-collagen protein synthesis. DNA degradation can be inhibited either by inactivating the lysosomal enzymes or obliterating endosome fusion to lysosomes using lysosomotropic agents. We report here the effects of individual lysosomotropic agents such as chloroquine, polyvinylpyrolidone PVP and sucrose on β-gal expression in cultured fibroblasts COS, 293 and CHO.