, a parasite of Old World (Eastern Hemisphere) monkeys, has been documented as a cause of human infections and some deaths in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium species are transmitted by the bite of an infective female mosquito. Does plaquenil help Chloroquine for fish ich Hydroxychloroquine related rash on external genitalia Pregnancy hydroxychloroquine Despite the resistance cases that have been reported in chloroquine, some countries still use chloroquine to effectively treat malaria. For example in some countries in West Africa where chloroquine is still very effective in treating malaria as the as the malaria in these regions is uncomplicated 6. Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects. Certain types of malaria, resistant strains, and complicated cases typically require different or additional medication. Occasionally it is used for amebiasis that is occurring outside the intestines, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus erythematosus. Despite the recognition of widespread chloroquine resistance in Africa, countries were reluctant to change treatment policy. In 1993, Malawi was the first African nation to change the first-line therapy from chloroquine to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine SP owing to high rates of chloroquine treatment failure. Malaria is a major international public health problem; 91 countries reported an estimated 216 million infections and 445,000 deaths in 2016, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report 2017. Occasionally, transmission occurs by blood transfusion, organ transplantation, needle sharing, nosocomially, or from mother to fetus. Chloroquine resistance countries The public health impact of chloroquine resistance in Africa, Chloroquine - Wikipedia Chloroquine dosage for malaria prevention Persistence of chloroquine resistance alleles in malaria endemic countries A systematic review of burden and risk factors Article PDF Available in Malaria Journal 181 December 2019 with 78. PDF Persistence of chloroquine resistance alleles in.. Antimalarial drug resistance in Africa key lessons for the.. Drug resistance in malaria - World Health Organization. Background. Malaria remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in most low- and middle-income countries. Chloroquine is a previously cheap and effective antimalarial agent whose loss to resistance resulted in more than doubling of malaria-related mortality in malaria-endemic countries. Unfortunately, within a decade of its introduction, P. falciparum parasite resistance to chloroquine was observed in most of the malaria-endemic countries. Nowadays, insurgence of resistance against chloroquine is a considerable hurdle for malaria control. Mar 12, 2019 Multiple chloroquine resistance surveys were done in eight countries Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Burkina Faso, Ghana, India, Gabon and Senegal. In all the eight countries chloroquine resistance allele prevalence decreased with increasing duration of time since discontinuation of chloroquine use in malaria treatment.